we are likely to encounter when in search of specimens are mainly split into 2
groups, these being:-
largest group known as the spore droppers. Basidiomycetes
can be split into 4 groups, these being – Gill Fungi (Agarics); Boletes (with
pores); Polypores (bracket Fungi) and Gasteromycetes (stomach shaped fungi).
outer surfaces of a group of club-shaped cells (basidia) are responsible for the
production of the spores. These
cells are located beneath the cap of the fungus and are found upon the surface
of distinctive structures known as gills or pores.
The gills/pores are raised above ground usually by the stipe thus giving
the spores enough space to fall and disperse.
In the case of Gasteromycetes, the basidia are found initially inside the
fruiting body. Puffballs for instance split at the top and require raindrops to
hit the surface of the sac which causes enough pressure to force out a puff of
spores, whereas the giant puffball randomly disintegrates and splits relying on
grazing cattle to kick it around underfoot for spore dispersal.
Examples of basidiomycetes are Blackening Wax Cap (Hygrocybe
nigrescens), Bonnet Mycena (Mycena
galericulata), Horse Mushroom (Agaricus
arvensis) and Brown Birch Bolete (Leccinum
ascomycetes spread their spores by the wind.
The spores which are formed within a sac which is either club or flask
shaped are dispersed through the tip of the ascus. Examples of ascomycetes are
Common Morel (Morchella vulgaris),
Black Helvella (Helvella lacunosa),
Scarlet Elf Cup (Sarcosypha coccinea)
and Candle-Snuff Fungus (Xylaria hypoxylon).