Fig 1
ADULT: Wingspan - 58 - 68mm.  The male is a rich orange with variable dark  spots amidst a series of dark edged veins.  There is always an arc of post-discal spots on the hindwing with the central one more often than not usually smallest. The female is lighter in colour and has a series of paler spots around the margin of each wing as shown above. CHRYSALIS: 19mm.  Reddish brown to black with a curved abdomen.  Located  deep within grassy tussocks and violet clumps. LARVA: 38mm.  When young the caterpillar is pale-yellow but after hibernation and when fully grown it becomes spiny, velvety, purplish black with red flank spots and white specks. EGG: Yellow at first then acquiring purple marks, conical.  Located on violets especially common dog, hairy and marsh.  Hatching time within 18 days. BEHAVIOUR: A strong, fast and direct flyer with males that patrol their territory constantly.  Several quick wingbeats and a swift glide are distinctive of the males flight with the females being more fluttering as they seek out nectar rich flowers. HABITAT: Dunes, rough grassland, heathland and moors. FLIGHT PERIOD: July - August.

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